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Islamic civilization is credited with further advancing the accuracy of clocks with elaborate engineering. In 797 (or possibly 801), the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian Elephant named Abul-Abbas together with a "particularly elaborate example" of a water[12] clock. Pope Sylvester II introduced clocks to northern and western Europe around 1000AD[13]
In the 13th century, Al-Jazari, an engineer from Mesopotamia (lived 1136–1206) who worked for Artuqid king of Diyar-Bakr, Nasir al-Din, made numerous clocks of all shapes and sizes. A book on his work described 50 mechanical devices in 6 categories, including water clocks. The most reputed clocks included the Elephant, Scribe and Castle clocks, all of which have been successfully reconstructed. As well as telling the time, these grand clocks were symbols of status, grandeur and wealth of the Urtuq State.[citation needed]

During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished, particularly in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in Blois, France. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements. The cross-beat escapement was invented in 1584 by Jost Bürgi, who also developed the remontoire. Bürgi's clocks were a great improvement in accuracy as they were correct to within a minute a day.[35][36] These clocks helped the 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than before.[citation needed][how?]
Exuding vintage appeal, this striking oversize wall clock rounds out rustic ensembles or lends a timeworn touch to modern spaces. Encased in wrought iron, this design features a wood face bearing distressed details and roman numerals tied together by spade-style hands. One AA battery (not included) keeps this design keeping time. Measuring 32'' W x 32'' H x 1'' D, it's sure to grab glances no matter where it's placed.
The oldest surviving clock in England is that at Salisbury Cathedral, which dates from 1386. A clock erected at Rouen, France, in 1389 is still extant, and one built for Wells Cathedral in England is preserved in the Science Museum in London. The Salisbury clock strikes the hours, and those of Rouen and Wells also have mechanisms for chiming at the quarter hour. These clocks are large, iron-framed structures driven by falling weights attached to a cord wrapped around a drum and regulated by a mechanism known as a verge (or crown wheel) escapement. Their errors probably were as large as a half hour per day. The first domestic clocks were smaller wall-mounted versions of these large public clocks. They appeared late in the 14th century, and few examples have survived; most of them, extremely austere in design, had no cases or means of protection from dust.
The apparent position of the Sun in the sky moves over the course of each day, reflecting the rotation of the Earth. Shadows cast by stationary objects move correspondingly, so their positions can be used to indicate the time of day. A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a (usually) flat surface, which has markings that correspond to the hours.[7] Sundials can be horizontal, vertical, or in other orientations. Sundials were widely used in ancient times.[8] With the knowledge of latitude, a well-constructed sundial can measure local solar time with reasonable accuracy, within a minute or two. Sundials continued to be used to monitor the performance of clocks until the modern era.[citation needed]
The Philips Wake-Up Light offers a choice of five pleasant nature sounds — or for the more traditionally minded, FM radio — for your morning wake-up call, but the real star of the show is the sunlight simulation. Twenty to forty minutes before your programmed wake-up time (you set both times), the clock will slowly begin to simulate the sunrise, complete with the softest dawn reds and oranges gently brightening into sunny, yellow light.
Never squint to see what time it is again, especially when you're waking up 20 times in the middle of the night to, you know, see exactly what time it is. We love the projection feature that displays the time on your wall or ceiling for easy viewing. Plus, it'll even toss up the temperature — so you'll already know what you should wear to work before you even get out of bed.
The Howard Miller Angelina 625-636 Wall Clock is part of Howard Millers New 91st Anniversary Edition of clocks. This clock has an aged look that is achieved through spatter marks, the use of a rasp, and well placed dents. The Antique White finish features brown undertones on select hardwood and veneers. The Angelina clocks that are made in 2017 will have the 91st Anniversary Edition inscription on the dial. The dial has an aged look with black Arabic numerals that look worn and charcoal grey hands behind a glass crystal that is convex. One Year Warranty and Free Shipping.
The Howard Miller 613-229 Alcott offers an impressive pediment featuring a sculptured cove and enlarged dentil molding. An off-white Roman numeral dial features a solid brass bezel and decorative accents between the numerals. Hinged front door with latch. A polished and raised brass pendulum with grid and polished chime rods add a distinctive touch to the interior. Finished in Cherry Bordeaux on select hardwoods and veneers. German made Keinenger Key-wound, quarter hour Westminster chime movement with hour count. Chime silence lever and durable bronze bushings. One Year warranty and Free Shipping.

Some clocks, usually digital ones, include an optical projector that shines a magnified image of the time display onto a screen or onto a surface such as an indoor ceiling or wall. The digits are large enough to be easily read, without using glasses, by persons with moderately imperfect vision, so the clocks are convenient for use in their bedrooms. Usually, the timekeeping circuitry has a battery as a backup source for an uninterrupted power supply to keep the clock on time, while the projection light only works when the unit is connected to an A.C. supply. Completely battery-powered portable versions resembling flashlights are also available.

Offer up eye-popping appeal on your walls with this absolutely striking wall clock, the perfect finishing touch to your factory-inspired ensemble. Fashioned from welded steel and featuring a deep black finish, this understated and chic clock lends a touch of simple style to your look, while its 45" diameter ensures it will make a big impact wherever you decide to hang it. Hang it up over trellis-print wallpaper in the living room to let the patterns show through this clock's openwork design, or...
While an analog dial makes it easy, this clock is certainly not just for telling time! Let its colorful frame imbue a sense of playful appeal into your lodge-inspired living room look, lovely sitting atop your mantel as the fire flickers down below. Whether you're lounging on the sofa after a spirited skiing session or simply warming up with a steaming mug of hot cocoa, you can't go wrong by making the whole room shine with an antler-adorned chandelier hanging overhead and tying it all together...
You know that feeling you get when you draw the blinds, and you didn’t expect it to be so sunny? That’s what this alarm clock does for you, except it wakes you up instead. Philips incorporated yellow-and-white light into this sunrise simulation programmable alarm clock, and this is the only alarm clock/lamp that’s certified to help you sleep better, and awake more refreshed than you ever thought possible. From America’s favorite retailer of small and budget-friendly gadgets, Philips does it again.
A standard alarm is often enough to wake most humans, but some people just sleep more deeply than others. For these individuals, the aptly titled SmartShaker 2 is ideal. The thin alarm clock fits comfortably under your pillow and vibrates to wake you. This feature also makes the SmartShaker 2 perfect for those with hearing impairments and couples with different sleep schedules.

A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation. The position of a ship at sea could be determined with reasonable accuracy if a navigator could refer to a clock that lost or gained less than about 10 seconds per day. This clock could not contain a pendulum, which would be virtually useless on a rocking ship. In 1714, the British government offered large financial rewards to the value of 20,000 pounds,[42] for anyone who could determine longitude accurately. John Harrison, who dedicated his life to improving the accuracy of his clocks, later received considerable sums under the Longitude Act.

Clock radios are powered by AC power from the wall socket. In the event of a power interruption, older electronic digital models used to reset the time to midnight (00:00) and lose alarm settings. This would cause failure to trigger the alarm even if the power is restored. To solve this issue, they trigger the alarm at 00:01 after a reset, so that at least the user is able to correct the clock and alarm settings. Most of the recent clock radios use a battery backup to maintain the time and alarm settings. Some advanced radio clocks (not to be confused with clocks with AM/FM radios) have a feature which sets the time automatically using signals from atomic clock-synced time signal radio stations such as WWV, making the clock accurate and immune to time reset due to power interruptions.

Time switches can be used to turn on anything that will awaken a sleeper, and can therefore be used as alarms. Lights, bells, and radio and TV sets can easily be used.[32] More elaborate devices have also been used, such as machines that automatically prepare tea or coffee. A sound is produced when the drink is ready, so the sleeper awakes to find the freshly brewed drink waiting.[33]

Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays; many other display technologies are used as well (cathode ray tubes, nixie tubes, etc.). After a reset, battery change or power failure, these clocks without a backup battery or capacitor either start counting from 12:00, or stay at 12:00, often with blinking digits indicating that the time needs to be set. Some newer clocks will reset themselves based on radio or Internet time servers that are tuned to national atomic clocks. Since the advent of digital clocks in the 1960s, the use of analog clocks has declined significantly.
Place Sense by Hello on your bedside table, and it will help you fall asleep, stay asleep, and wake up without the grogginess or fatigue you may be used to. The small, white orb plays ambient noises to help ease you into dreamland, and a small monitor clipped to your pillow tracks your movements throughout the night, and sends feedback to an app on your smartphone. By monitoring your sleep cycles, the alarm knows the best time to wake you up in the morning so you're feeling refreshed.
The Howard Miller Postema Oversized 49" Wall Clock is a unique piece that will remind you of oversized clocks. This round-shaped clock is a piece of style with the traditional accents. The clock has an espresso finish and round shape. You can mount this clock in any room at your home. This clock can also be placed in big halls or entryways because of its size and functionality. The clock has a distressed finish that complements the espresso varnish. This antique wall clock is made from wrought...

Don't settle for a simple wall clock to merely ensure you’re on time. Bring both function and French flair to your space with this oversized 29" oval wall clock. Made from manufactured wood, it showcases a typographic motif in the center that reads "Antiquite de Paris 1887" for a dash of antique inspiration. Classic Roman numerals and spade-style hands help you keep an eye on the hour, while a distressed finish completes the design with well-worn charm. Once you pop in a battery (not...
Greek astronomer Andronicus of Cyrrhus supervised the construction of the Tower of the Winds in Athens in the 1st century B.C.[11] The Greek and Roman civilizations are credited for initially advancing water clock design to include complex gearing, which was connected to fanciful automata and also resulted in improved accuracy. These advances were passed on through Byzantium and Islamic times, eventually making their way back to Europe. Independently, the Chinese developed their own advanced water clocks(水鐘)in 725 A.D., passing their ideas on to Korea and Japan.
For convenience, distance, telephony or blindness, auditory clocks present the time as sounds. The sound is either spoken natural language, (e.g. "The time is twelve thirty-five"), or as auditory codes (e.g. number of sequential bell rings on the hour represents the number of the hour like the bell, Big Ben). Most telecommunication companies also provide a speaking clock service as well.

In a master clock system, electricity is used to give direct impulses to the pendulum, which in turn causes the clock’s gear train to move, or to lift a lever after it has imparted an impulse to the pendulum. In various modern master clocks the pendulum operates a light count wheel that turns through the pitch of one tooth every double swing and is arranged to release a lever every half minute. This lever gives an impulse to the pendulum and is then restored to its original position by an electromagnet. The pulse of current that operates the electromagnet can also be transmitted to a series of distant dials, or slave clocks, advancing the hands of each through the space of a half minute. Thus, a master clock can control scores of dials in a large group of buildings, as well as such other apparatus as time recorders and sirens.
Some clocks have several displays driven by a single mechanism, and some others have several completely separate mechanisms in a single case. Clocks in public places often have several faces visible from different directions, so that the clock can be read from anywhere in the vicinity; all the faces show the same time. Other clocks show the current time in several time-zones. Watches that are intended to be carried by travellers often have two displays, one for the local time and the other for the time at home, which is useful for making pre-arranged phone calls. Some equation clocks have two displays, one showing mean time and the other solar time, as would be shown by a sundial. Some clocks have both analog and digital displays. Clocks with Braille displays usually also have conventional digits so they can be read by sighted people.
You can set the clock to release aromatherapeutic scents in tandem with the light, choosing from four different fragrances that come with the clock or using your own essential oil blend. Fifteen minutes before your wake-up time, it'll also emit your choice of soft nature noises. The cycle ends with a chiming noise that gradually grows in volume to ensure that even the heaviest sleepers will wake up.
The pendulum is a reliable time measurer because, for small arcs, the time required for a complete swing (period) depends only on the length of the pendulum and is almost independent of the extent of the arc. The length of a pendulum with a period of one second is about 39 inches (990 mm), and an increase in length of 0.001 inch (0.025 mm) will make the clock lose about one second per day. Altering the length of a pendulum is therefore a sensitive means of regulation. The alteration is usually carried out by allowing the bob to rest upon a nut that can be screwed up or down the pendulum rod.
Vintage, contemporary, rustic, classic, novelty, and traditional are just a few of the styles of wall clocks available. Classic and traditional clocks generally feature simple numbers or roman numerals that make checking the time at a glance easy. Rustic, nautical, and country themes typically feature pictures of animals or rural and seaside scenes. Contemporary styles often use an abstract design that may lack numbers altogether. Vintage and antique styles of wall clocks may be simple or ornate, and have a midcentury or older look. A wide variety of fun novelty options are also available, ranging from famous characters and well-known brands to glow-in-the-dark and reversed numeral designs.
Offer up eye-popping appeal on your walls with this absolutely striking wall clock, the perfect finishing touch to your factory-inspired ensemble. Fashioned from welded steel and featuring a deep black finish, this understated and chic clock lends a touch of simple style to your look, while its 45" diameter ensures it will make a big impact wherever you decide to hang it. Hang it up over trellis-print wallpaper in the living room to let the patterns show through this clock's openwork design, or...
This Technology Curved Tabletop Clock and weather instrument offers curve-appeal. It also offers dynamic white LED display with a mirrored lens which can be seen from across the room and in darkened rooms. Features dual alarms with adjustable settings: HI/LO sound volume, programmable alarm days, snooze duration (5-60 mins), and auto-dim. Displays your current indoor temperature (F only) and humidity and can charge a mobile device with a bonus USB port in the back of the clock. Table standing...