Bolter, David J. Turing's Man: Western Culture in the Computer Age. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, N.C. (1984). ISBN 0-8078-4108-0 pbk. Very good, readable summary of the role of "the clock" in its setting the direction of philosophic movement for the "Western World". Cf. picture on p. 25 showing the verge and foliot. Bolton derived the picture from Macey, p. 20.

In a clock driven by a weight or a spring, the power is first transmitted by the main, or great, wheel. This engages with a pinion (a gear with a small number of teeth designed to mesh with a larger wheel), whose arbor (a turning rod to which gears are attached) is attached to the second wheel that, in its turn, engages with the next pinion, and so on, down through the train to the escapement. The gear ratios are such that one arbor, usually the second or third, rotates once an hour and can be used to carry the minute hand. A simple 12-to-1 gearing, known as the motion work, gives the necessary step-down ratio to drive the hour hand. The spring or weight is fitted with a mechanism so it can be rewound when necessary, and the arbor carrying the minute hand is provided with a simple slipping clutch that allows the hands to be set to the correct time.

Strong, durable, super large time display makes the model perfect for those who either want a big number clock, or for visually impaired individuals who need extra-large numerals, The red LED display on a black background, makes the contrast ideal for easy viewing. The electric power with battery backup lets you sleep with peace of mind and the extra-large snooze bar keeps nap-time within reach. This clock is a solid purchase.

In addition to radio, recent clock radios have other music sources such as iPod, iPhone, and/or audio CD. When the alarm is triggered, it can play a set radio station or the music from a selected music source to awaken the sleeper. These models usually come with a dock for iPod/iPhone that also charges the device while it is docked. They can play FM/AM radio, iPod/iPhone or CD like a typical music player as well (without being triggered by the alarm function). A few popular models offer "nature sounds" like rain, forest, fire, sea, waterfall etc., in place of the buzzer.

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Howard Miller 625-323 Alton wall clock. Matte black case with shatter-resistant acrylic crystal. White dial and large, easy-to-read black Arabic numerals. Auto Daylight-Savings movement automatically adjusts for Daylight Savings Time. The hands of the clock follow an LCD display on the back of the clock and make corrections to keep the correct time including Daylight Saving Time corrections.
Clocks have a secret life: they're responsible for much more than telling time. From pocket watches to grandfather clocks, a time piece has usually been used to make a statement about the owner as much as it has about the hour. With this clock, you can make a statement in rustic style. Featuring numerals in a lighter inset wood, this piece measures 29.75'' H x 29.75'' W x 2.38'' D. Because both the hands and wood are dark, we recommend displaying this piece in a well-lit area for easier...
Wall clocks offer a decorative alternative to traditional wall art while also serving a practical function. Whether you want an oversized wall clock to mount above the fireplace and serve as a focal point in your living room or a small model to hang in your kitchen to help keep your family on schedule on school days, Overstock carries the perfect model for your needs. Trusted brands, including Westclox, La Crosse, and Hans Andersen Home, ensure accuracy and durability. From retro-inspired metal clocks in colorful finishes to classic wooden case clocks featuring lustrous stains, Overstock carries wall clocks in an array of styles, sizes, and types with a wide range of features. Read on to learn more about the inventory of wall clocks at Overstock.

The primary purpose of a clock is to display the time. Clocks may also have the facility to make a loud alert signal at a specified time, typically to waken a sleeper at a preset time; they are referred to as alarm clocks. The alarm may start at a low volume and become louder, or have the facility to be switched off for a few minutes then resume. Alarm clocks with visible indicators are sometimes used to indicate to children too young to read the time that the time for sleep has finished; they are sometimes called training clocks.
In a master clock system, electricity is used to give direct impulses to the pendulum, which in turn causes the clock’s gear train to move, or to lift a lever after it has imparted an impulse to the pendulum. In various modern master clocks the pendulum operates a light count wheel that turns through the pitch of one tooth every double swing and is arranged to release a lever every half minute. This lever gives an impulse to the pendulum and is then restored to its original position by an electromagnet. The pulse of current that operates the electromagnet can also be transmitted to a series of distant dials, or slave clocks, advancing the hands of each through the space of a half minute. Thus, a master clock can control scores of dials in a large group of buildings, as well as such other apparatus as time recorders and sirens.
In a clock driven by a weight or a spring, the power is first transmitted by the main, or great, wheel. This engages with a pinion (a gear with a small number of teeth designed to mesh with a larger wheel), whose arbor (a turning rod to which gears are attached) is attached to the second wheel that, in its turn, engages with the next pinion, and so on, down through the train to the escapement. The gear ratios are such that one arbor, usually the second or third, rotates once an hour and can be used to carry the minute hand. A simple 12-to-1 gearing, known as the motion work, gives the necessary step-down ratio to drive the hour hand. The spring or weight is fitted with a mechanism so it can be rewound when necessary, and the arbor carrying the minute hand is provided with a simple slipping clutch that allows the hands to be set to the correct time.
The clock is beautiful and just as depicted.: The clock is beautiful and just as depicted. The seller was very conscientious in updating us on shipping status as this item was on back order when we first ordered it. We were given the option to cancel the order due to shipping delays but we are very glad we didn't. The clock is a signature piece in our newly remodeled kitchen.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished, particularly in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in Blois, France. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements. The cross-beat escapement was invented in 1584 by Jost Bürgi, who also developed the remontoire. Bürgi's clocks were a great improvement in accuracy as they were correct to within a minute a day.[35][36] These clocks helped the 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than before.[citation needed][how?]
Now, RCA Digital Alarm Clock is pretty basic, but for some of us, that’s all we need, right? With a bright, beaming red LED display, you’re certain to rub your eyes and wonder what weird light is pulsating from your nightstand. There’s an alarm indicator and the classic AM/PM light that we all remember from early-2000 models. You can do something different from your late 1990s-inspired clock, and that is change the brightness levels so you don’t completely burn out your retinas.
Bring bold, eye-popping appeal to your walls with this absolutely striking wall clock, the perfect finishing touch to your industrial-inspired ensemble. Crafted from welded steel and featuring a deep black finish, this understated and chic clock lends a touch of simple style to your look, while its 39" diameter ensures it will make a big impact wherever you decide to hang it. Hang it up over muted stripe wallpaper in the living room to let the patterns show through this clock's openwork design...

The returned instants from Clock work on a time-scale that ignores leap seconds, as described in Instant. If the implementation wraps a source that provides leap second information, then a mechanism should be used to "smooth" the leap second. The Java Time-Scale mandates the use of UTC-SLS, however clock implementations may choose how accurate they are with the time-scale so long as they document how they work. Implementations are therefore not required to actually perform the UTC-SLS slew or to otherwise be aware of leap seconds.


Clocks have different ways of displaying time, connected to their internal clockwork type. Analog clocks usually indicate time using angles. Digital clocks display a numeric representation of time. Two numeric display formats are commonly used on digital clocks: 24-hour notation and 12-hour notation. Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays. For convenience, distance, telephony or blindness, auditory clocks present the time as sounds. There are also clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by using the sense of touch. Some of these are similar to normal analog displays, but are constructed so the hands can be felt without damaging them. The evolution of the technology of clocks continues today. The study of timekeeping is known as horology.
Clockmakers developed their art in various ways. Building smaller clocks was a technical challenge, as was improving accuracy and reliability. Clocks could be impressive showpieces to demonstrate skilled craftsmanship, or less expensive, mass-produced items for domestic use. The escapement in particular was an important factor affecting the clock's accuracy, so many different mechanisms were tried.

To truly earn its place on your nightstand, an alarm clock should be reliable and versatile, letting you customize your wake-up experience without letting you down. This model is actually more than just an alarm: It has two USB chargers and two outlets. That alone means you and your significant other might fight for who gets to put this clock next to their side of the bed. Thanks to its backup battery, you won’t have a Home Alone oversleeping situation when you need to get to the airport or the power goes out. There’s a big snooze button for those mornings when you need some extra Zs.


The Homedics SoundSpa Digital FM Tabletop Clock with time projection gives you the power to create a soothing, relaxing sleep environment. Choose from eight peaceful relaxation sounds including ocean, white noise, brook, rainforest, thunder, rain, fan, campfire, or simply switch on the radio. The SoundSpa Digital FM Tabletop Clock comes with the option of time projection and a soothing blue light.
More than just a tool for keeping track of the time, this eye-catching wall clock helps turn any empty wall into an artful display. Crafted from injection plastic finished in a sleek metallic tone, it features a circular center with rods all around extending to stage the numbers of an analog dial. Measuring 16'' in diameter, it makes a statement on your kitchen or entryway wall without dominating the decor.

Set up your bedroom clock to be close enough to you to shut it off, but far enough away that you have to get up to actually his snooze or power it down. Your digital alarm clock should also be a radio alarm clock, so you can wake up to some tunes and start the day off right. Alarm clocks for heavy sleepers are going to have a louder radio capability, which will get through those thick dreams of yours, and get you up.
It is amazing what a difference adding a single wall clock will change the look and feel of your favorite room in your home. We offer Large and Small, Chiming and Non-Chiming as well as traditional and contemporary designs. Hundreds of Wall Clocks all on sale today by Howard Miller, Hermle, Seiko and Bulova! Narrow down your choices by selecting from a category below.
A standard alarm is often enough to wake most humans, but some people just sleep more deeply than others. For these individuals, the aptly titled SmartShaker 2 is ideal. The thin alarm clock fits comfortably under your pillow and vibrates to wake you. This feature also makes the SmartShaker 2 perfect for those with hearing impairments and couples with different sleep schedules.
Molded by mid-century modern style, this 38" wall clock brings a bit of bold flair to any space in your home. Its generous size helps it grab glances (and compliments!) from guests, while its open and numberless design gives it a minimalist feel. Crafted from metal, this round silhouette sports a gold finish with silver-finished hands in the center for subtle contrast. Two AA batteries (not included) are required to operate.
Electric currents can be used to replace the weight or spring as a source of power and as a means of signaling time indications from a central master clock to a wide range of distant indicating dials. Invented in 1840, the first battery electric clock was driven by a spring and pendulum and employed an electrical impulse to operate a number of dials. Considerable experimental work followed, and it was not until 1906 that the first self-contained battery-driven clock was invented.
A well-made large wall clock that looks good and runs smoothly can bring charm and functionality to any space. For a fresh take on the traditional clock, consider this eye-catching design... Introducing Rimwood by Umbra Every Umbra wall clock is tested in our factory before shipping to ensure it works perfectly. This, coupled with a sleek and modern design, ensures you’re getting a clock that not only tells time accurately but also looks great. This classically-inspired clock has a truly...

For light sleepers, audio alarms can be rather jarring. Fortunately, the Philips Morning Wake-Up Light uses a warm, gentle glow and natural sound effects rather than incessant beeping to get you out of bed. The alarm clock also features a colored sunrise simulation and 20 brightness settings for optimal customization. The light slowly increases in brightness between 20 and 40 minutes prior to your desired alarm time. The clock helps you drift to sleep, too. Instead of you simply turning out the lights and settling into bed, the light-responsive dimming feature gently guides you to sleep with audio accompaniment. This type of alarm is definitely not for everyone, but it is suitable for those who prefer to wake up gradually. For more details, read our full Philips Wake-Up Light review.
Over the past decade, many of us have gotten used to setting our alarm clocks on our smartphones rather than purchasing a dedicated device for our nightstands. Despite their seeming obsolescence, an array of cutting-edge clocks have hit the market to aid us with everything from falling asleep to promoting better sleep cycles. Even Amazon is in the alarm clock game, with the Echo Spot, a device that resembles a Magic 8 Ball and functions much like the Echo Show.
To truly earn its place on your nightstand, an alarm clock should be reliable and versatile, letting you customize your wake-up experience without letting you down. This model is actually more than just an alarm: It has two USB chargers and two outlets. That alone means you and your significant other might fight for who gets to put this clock next to their side of the bed. Thanks to its backup battery, you won’t have a Home Alone oversleeping situation when you need to get to the airport or the power goes out. There’s a big snooze button for those mornings when you need some extra Zs.
Auditory and projection clocks can be used by people who are blind or have limited vision. There are also clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by using the sense of touch. Some of these are similar to normal analog displays, but are constructed so the hands can be felt without damaging them. Another type is essentially digital, and uses devices that use a code such as Braille to show the digits so that they can be felt with the fingertips.

The Howard Miller Stapleton Oversized 30" Wall Clock is a wonderful accent piece. The elegant design of this wall clock can add a touch of sophistication to any home decor. This oversized wall clock has numeral as well as hour markers. You can mount this wall clock on any wall in your home or office as it has classic design in contemporary style. The clock has brushed nickel finish that blends well with most of the decor. This wall clock has a great design in round shape with round dial and...
Showcasing the time, date, and weather, this clock is an essential for any desk. No need to lift your arm and look at your watch or light up your phone screen, this 0.3'' H x 3.7'' W x 1.5'' D design is an easy way to get the info you need. A vibrant blue backlight keeps it illuminated (requiring the power of a AA battery), while a plastic frame allows it to stand upright.
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