Coordinated Universal Time offset UT ΔT DUT1 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service ISO 31-1 ISO 8601 International Atomic Time 6-hour clock 12-hour clock 24-hour clock Barycentric Coordinate Time Barycentric Dynamical Time Civil time Daylight saving time Geocentric Coordinate Time International Date Line Leap second Solar time Terrestrial Time Time zone 180th meridian

Coordinated Universal Time offset UT ΔT DUT1 International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service ISO 31-1 ISO 8601 International Atomic Time 6-hour clock 12-hour clock 24-hour clock Barycentric Coordinate Time Barycentric Dynamical Time Civil time Daylight saving time Geocentric Coordinate Time International Date Line Leap second Solar time Terrestrial Time Time zone 180th meridian

The next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock. Galileo had the idea to use a swinging bob to regulate the motion of a time-telling device earlier in the 17th century. Christiaan Huygens, however, is usually credited as the inventor. He determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time (about 99.4 cm or 39.1 inches for the one second movement) and had the first pendulum-driven clock made. The first model clock was built in 1657 in the Hague, but it was in England that the idea was taken up.[38] The longcase clock (also known as the grandfather clock) was created to house the pendulum and works by the English clockmaker William Clement in 1670 or 1671. It was also at this time that clock cases began to be made of wood and clock faces to utilize enamel as well as hand-painted ceramics.

The oldest surviving clock in England is that at Salisbury Cathedral, which dates from 1386. A clock erected at Rouen, France, in 1389 is still extant, and one built for Wells Cathedral in England is preserved in the Science Museum in London. The Salisbury clock strikes the hours, and those of Rouen and Wells also have mechanisms for chiming at the quarter hour. These clocks are large, iron-framed structures driven by falling weights attached to a cord wrapped around a drum and regulated by a mechanism known as a verge (or crown wheel) escapement. Their errors probably were as large as a half hour per day. The first domestic clocks were smaller wall-mounted versions of these large public clocks. They appeared late in the 14th century, and few examples have survived; most of them, extremely austere in design, had no cases or means of protection from dust.

Go to bed with positive thoughts. Tell yourself, “I want to get up early because…” and then, actually do it. Sleep studies happen all the time, and they tell us what exterior activities are affecting our dreams, our nightmares, etc., and talking to yourself as you drift off to bed has been proven to work. If you’re looking forward to something in the morning, tell yourself about it, and your body will hold onto that through the night.


Time can be smart, clever, ultra-stylish, functional and simple with this Cube Click Desktop Clock. This Cube Click Desktop Clock can tell you the time, date and temperature alternately in blue LED color on a black wood-effect block at the click of your fingers and automatically switches off when the room is quiet, lighting up again when the alarm goes off or as a response to clicked fingers or clapped hands. The numbers seem to float on the lovely wooden block, but that's just half the magic...
If it has the iHome name attached to it, you know it’s going to be flashy. Their Bluetooth color changing clock hits home on all the necessary marks, allowing you to talk and end phone conversations with the touch of a button, as well as the five multiple LED color settings. It isn’t all about waking up in the morning; this alarm clock has you ready to go with a fully charged iPhone, fed sweet, sweet energy while you sleep. The last alarm clock you’ll ever need is staring you right in the face – it’s time to complete your iHome collection in style.
Pairing a simple design with a contrasting black-and-silver palette, this eye-catching 12" wall clock instantly elevates your favorite aesthetic. Its round silhouette blends effortlessly into both casual or formal spaces, while its clean profile adds sophistication to your decor. Lean into this wall clock's versatility by adding it to a transitional living room arrangement alongside a mid-century-inspired sofa and gently-tufted barrel chairs for a cohesive seating space. Anchor the ensemble...
Water clocks, also known as clepsydrae (sg: clepsydra), along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments, with the only exceptions being the vertical gnomon and the day counting tally stick.[9] Given their great antiquity, where and when they first existed is not known and perhaps unknowable. The bowl-shaped outflow is the simplest form of a water clock and is known to have existed in Babylon and in Egypt around the 16th century BC. Other regions of the world, including India and China, also have early evidence of water clocks, but the earliest dates are less certain. Some authors, however, write about water clocks appearing as early as 4000 BC in these regions of the world.[10]

The pendulum is a reliable time measurer because, for small arcs, the time required for a complete swing (period) depends only on the length of the pendulum and is almost independent of the extent of the arc. The length of a pendulum with a period of one second is about 39 inches (990 mm), and an increase in length of 0.001 inch (0.025 mm) will make the clock lose about one second per day. Altering the length of a pendulum is therefore a sensitive means of regulation. The alteration is usually carried out by allowing the bob to rest upon a nut that can be screwed up or down the pendulum rod.
In addition to radio, recent clock radios have other music sources such as iPod, iPhone, and/or audio CD. When the alarm is triggered, it can play a set radio station or the music from a selected music source to awaken the sleeper. These models usually come with a dock for iPod/iPhone that also charges the device while it is docked. They can play FM/AM radio, iPod/iPhone or CD like a typical music player as well (without being triggered by the alarm function). A few popular models offer "nature sounds" like rain, forest, fire, sea, waterfall etc., in place of the buzzer.
Whether you’re styling an accent wall or rounding out your decor, a retro-inspired wall clock like this one draws the eye while adding some utility to your ensemble. The large numbers make this clock easy to read, and with quartz movement, it features a more accurate reading. The minimalist black and white face and the sleek silver frame imbue it with contemporary appeal, making this piece easy to hang in a variety of design styles. Measures 15'' in diameter.

Some water clock designs were developed independently and some knowledge was transferred through the spread of trade. Pre-modern societies do not have the same precise timekeeping requirements that exist in modern industrial societies, where every hour of work or rest is monitored, and work may start or finish at any time regardless of external conditions. Instead, water clocks in ancient societies were used mainly for astrological reasons. These early water clocks were calibrated with a sundial. While never reaching the level of accuracy of a modern timepiece, the water clock was the most accurate and commonly used timekeeping device for millennia, until it was replaced by the more accurate pendulum clock in 17th-century Europe.
For light sleepers, audio alarms can be rather jarring. Fortunately, the Philips Morning Wake-Up Light uses a warm, gentle glow and natural sound effects rather than incessant beeping to get you out of bed. The alarm clock also features a colored sunrise simulation and 20 brightness settings for optimal customization. The light slowly increases in brightness between 20 and 40 minutes prior to your desired alarm time. The clock helps you drift to sleep, too. Instead of you simply turning out the lights and settling into bed, the light-responsive dimming feature gently guides you to sleep with audio accompaniment. This type of alarm is definitely not for everyone, but it is suitable for those who prefer to wake up gradually. For more details, read our full Philips Wake-Up Light review.
Not just for keeping your eye on the hour, this eye-catching wall clock lends a touch of retro flair to your ensemble in seconds. Measuring 9.5'' in diameter (so you know it'll fit just about anywhere), this piece pairs a glossy iron frame with a traditional analog dial. This product requires one AA battery to operate, which is not included. The manufacturer for this item provides a limited one-year warranty.

Electric currents can be used to replace the weight or spring as a source of power and as a means of signaling time indications from a central master clock to a wide range of distant indicating dials. Invented in 1840, the first battery electric clock was driven by a spring and pendulum and employed an electrical impulse to operate a number of dials. Considerable experimental work followed, and it was not until 1906 that the first self-contained battery-driven clock was invented.
Not just for keeping your eye on the hour, this eye-catching wall clock lends a touch of retro flair to your ensemble in seconds. Measuring 9.5'' in diameter (so you know it'll fit just about anywhere), this piece pairs a glossy iron frame with a traditional analog dial. This product requires one AA battery to operate, which is not included. The manufacturer for this item provides a limited one-year warranty.
If you've moved away from using a clock completely and instead set an alarm on your phone, consider the SmartShaker by iLuv. The device slides under your pillow and shakes you awake when your phone alarm goes off (it connects wirelessly using bluetooth). You can also have the device sound an audible alarm. The battery lasts a full month before needing to be charged.

About 1581 Galileo noticed the characteristic timekeeping property of the pendulum. The Dutch astronomer and physicist Christiaan Huygens was responsible for the practical application of the pendulum as a time controller in clocks from 1656 onward. Huygens’s invention brought about a great increase in the importance and extent of clock making. Clocks, weight-driven and with short pendulums, were encased in wood and made to hang on the wall, but these new eight-day wall clocks had very heavy weights, and many fell off weak plaster walls and were destroyed. The next step was to extend the case to the floor, and the grandfather clock was born. In 1670 the long, or seconds, pendulum was introduced by English clock makers with the anchor escapement.
Hang clocks in places where they’ll be most useful, such as the kitchen or above your desk. They should be easily visible and complement the design of the space. Large wall clocks are ideal for over a fireplace, above an entry table or showcased in an art niche. Smaller wall clocks can be added to your kitchen, home office or child’s bedroom to help keep your day on track.

While some people have a type of internal clock and can wake up around the same time every day, most people need a little extra help in this department. Without an alarm clock, you could sleep through your plans for the day, whether those plans include fun activities with loved ones or getting things done around the house. You might think you can use the built-in alarm on your phone. However, it's too easy to grab your phone from your bedside table and turn off the alarm without really waking up and getting going for the day.
Acadia finish on select hardwoods and veneers is heavily distressed by scribes, and worm holes for a natural, rustic appearance — inspired by the natural yet rustic nature of reclaimed woods in beautiful patinas and burnished details. Features a multi-tiered flat top, distinctive columns with corbels frame the door. Circular spun antique nickel-finished dial with black Roman numerals, hour markers, and hands. Antique nickel-finished lyre pendulum. Quartz, battery-operated, triple-chime Harmonic movement plays choice of full Westminster or Ave Maria chimes with strike on the hour with 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 chimes accordingly; Westminster chime and strike on the hour only; or Bim Bam chime on the hour only. Volume control and automatic nighttime chime shut-off option. Powered by two C sized batteries. One year warranty and Free Shipping

Howard Miller 625-323 Alton wall clock. Matte black case with shatter-resistant acrylic crystal. White dial and large, easy-to-read black Arabic numerals. Auto Daylight-Savings movement automatically adjusts for Daylight Savings Time. The hands of the clock follow an LCD display on the back of the clock and make corrections to keep the correct time including Daylight Saving Time corrections.


If you’re looking for a calmer start to your day, you might want to try the Wake-Up Light. It gradually gets you up and out of bed with a colored sunrise simulation and a selection of nature-inspired sounds, so that you can start the day feeling refreshed and energized—as if you had woken up naturally. For anyone who finds it particularly hard to get out of bed when it’s cold and dark out, this alarm clock makes those winter mornings that little bit easier. It also comes with a nighttime dimming feature so that you can make sure you’re getting your best night’s rest.

In 1815, Francis Ronalds published the first electric clock powered by dry pile batteries.[48] Alexander Bain, Scottish clockmaker, patented the electric clock in 1840. The electric clock's mainspring is wound either with an electric motor or with an electromagnet and armature. In 1841, he first patented the electromagnetic pendulum. By the end of the nineteenth century, the advent of the dry cell battery made it feasible to use electric power in clocks. Spring or weight driven clocks that use electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC), to rewind the spring or raise the weight of a mechanical clock would be classified as an electromechanical clock. This classification would also apply to clocks that employ an electrical impulse to propel the pendulum. In electromechanical clocks the electricity serves no time keeping function. These types of clocks were made as individual timepieces but more commonly used in synchronized time installations in schools, businesses, factories, railroads and government facilities as a master clock and slave clocks.
The timekeeping element of a quartz clock consists of a ring of quartz about 2.5 inches (63.5 mm) in diameter, suspended by threads and enclosed in a heat-insulated chamber. Electrodes are attached to the surfaces of the ring and connected to an electrical circuit in such a manner as to sustain oscillations. Since the frequency of vibration, 100,000-hertz, is too high for convenient time measurement, it is reduced by a process known as frequency division or demultiplication and applied to a synchronous motor connected to a clock dial through mechanical gearing. If a 100,000 hertz frequency, for example, is subjected to a combined electrical and mechanical gearing reduction of 6,000,000 to 1, then the second hand of the synchronous clock will make exactly one rotation in 60 seconds. The vibrations are so regular that the maximum error of an observatory quartz-crystal clock is only a few ten-thousandths of a second per day, equivalent to an error of one second every 10 years.

This lovely wall clock brings casual elegance and familiar charm to your home. Brimming with country style, this design pairs perfectly with items like vintage decor and whitewashed accents. The round design and the bold black Roman numeral numbering give this piece a touch of traditional appeal, while the beige frame with distressed detailing anchors this piece in cottage-chic style. It also showcases the typographic motif on the white face reading “Lotion Gargelle 1797” for added antiqued...
Although it isn’t strictly an “alarm clock,” the Google Home Hub can wake you up in the morning and do so much more. One of the most drastic differences between the Home Hub and other comparable devices is its size; the Home Hub stands at a mere 4.5 inches tall. This makes it small enough to fit comfortably on a nightstand. That small frame is partly due to the lack of a camera, which may be a pro or a con depending on how much you value your privacy. The Home Hub connects to the various Bluetooth-enabled devices you might have throughout your home, including lights, speakers, thermostat, etc. You can set up the Home Hub to respond to your voice commands, or manage devices using the touchscreen. For the purposes of an alarm clock, the Home Hub works terrifically. You can set a normal alarm, or even have the Hub wake you with a specific song from your music library. Given the Hub’s lackluster built-in speakers, however, you may want to connect it to your sound system if you have one. For more details, read our full review.
An alarm clock (alarm for short) is a clock that is designed to alert an individual or group of individuals at specified time. The primary function of these clocks is to awaken people from their night's sleep or short naps; they are sometimes used for other reminders as well. Most use sound; some use light or vibration. Some have sensors to identify when a person is in a light stage of sleep, in order to avoid waking someone who is deeply asleep, which causes tiredness, even if the person has had adequate sleep. To stop the sound or light, a button or handle on the clock is pressed; most clocks automatically stop the alarm if left unattended long enough. A classic analog alarm clock has an extra hand or inset dial that is used to specify the time at which to activate the alarm. Alarm clocks are also found on mobile phones, watches, and computers.
The ancient Greek philosopher Plato (428–348 BC) was said to possess a large water clock with an unspecified alarm signal similar to the sound of a water organ; he used it at night, possibly for signaling the beginning of his lectures at dawn (Athenaeus 4.174c).[2] The Hellenistic engineer and inventor Ctesibius (fl. 285–222 BC) fitted his clepsydras with dial and pointer for indicating the time, and added elaborate "alarm systems, which could be made to drop pebbles on a gong, or blow trumpets (by forcing bell-jars down into water and taking the compressed air through a beating reed) at pre-set times" (Vitruv 11.11).[3]
A well-made large wall clock that looks good and runs smoothly can add charm and functionality to any space. For a fresh take on the traditional clock, consider this eye-catching design... Introducing Madera Wall Clock by Umbra This beautiful, modern clock has a wood veneer dial, aluminum bezel, and glass lens. Inspired by modern wristwatches Madera is intended to serve as a finishing touch for any space. Featuring a silent sweeping quartz mechanism, this wall clocks battery operated design...
The oldest surviving clock in England is that at Salisbury Cathedral, which dates from 1386. A clock erected at Rouen, France, in 1389 is still extant, and one built for Wells Cathedral in England is preserved in the Science Museum in London. The Salisbury clock strikes the hours, and those of Rouen and Wells also have mechanisms for chiming at the quarter hour. These clocks are large, iron-framed structures driven by falling weights attached to a cord wrapped around a drum and regulated by a mechanism known as a verge (or crown wheel) escapement. Their errors probably were as large as a half hour per day. The first domestic clocks were smaller wall-mounted versions of these large public clocks. They appeared late in the 14th century, and few examples have survived; most of them, extremely austere in design, had no cases or means of protection from dust.
Bring home this table clock that showcases an antique-inspired look. Measuring 18'' H x 15'' W x 5'' D, it's the perfect piece to place on a bookshelf or desktop for a practical yet decorative accent. Made in a traditional, alarm-clock inspired style, it features a distressed gray metal frame and feet. Its face displays an off-white background and faded roman numerals, as well as an hour hand, minute hand, and ornamental gears in the center. It accommodates one AA battery to help keep you on...
Inspired by a vintage bicycle wheel, this awesome Oversized Kennan Metal 26.8" Wall Clock lends a touch of industrial chic style to your walls. This factory-chic timekeeper features rusted Arabic numerals, classic black spade hands on a battery-operated rusted gear movement, and gleaming metal wheel spoke accents. Create a factory-chic focal point in your dining room by mounting this piece on the wall over a reclaimed wood sideboard for guests to admire at your next dinner party or add it to...

Can we let you in on a secret? From pocket watches to grandfather clocks, a timepiece often tells as much about its owner as it does the hour. With a piece like this, you can ensure that it makes a statement in rustic-inspired style. Crafted from solid rubberwood with black metal spade handles, this piece is full of cottage charm. Featuring a distressed finish and roman numerals alongside its open back, this piece is sure to make welcome guests to your home with its modern farmhouse details.

A: If your clock is waking you up too abruptly, pulling you out of REM sleep like Leo from a dream inside another dream, your body goes into a moderate level of shock. You’ll feel your heart kick up all of a sudden, because now you’re awake, and your body has been taken by surprise. You have to go from a resting heart rate of 40-50 BPM, back to a standard heart rate (or a little higher at first) of around 60-100 BPM
In Chinese culture, giving a clock (送鍾/送钟, sòng zhōng) is often taboo, especially to the elderly as the term for this act is a homophone with the term for the act of attending another's funeral (送終/送终, sòngzhōng).[75][76][77] A UK government official Susan Kramer gave a watch to Taipei mayor Ko Wen-je unaware of such a taboo which resulted in some professional embarrassment and a pursuant apology.[78]

Clocks have a secret life: they're responsible for much more than telling time. From pocket watches to grandfather clocks, a time piece has usually been used to make a statement about the owner as much as it has about the hour. With this clock, you can make a statement in rustic style. Featuring numerals in a lighter inset wood, this piece measures 29.75'' H x 29.75'' W x 2.38'' D. Because both the hands and wood are dark, we recommend displaying this piece in a well-lit area for easier...
The timekeeping element of a quartz clock consists of a ring of quartz about 2.5 inches (63.5 mm) in diameter, suspended by threads and enclosed in a heat-insulated chamber. Electrodes are attached to the surfaces of the ring and connected to an electrical circuit in such a manner as to sustain oscillations. Since the frequency of vibration, 100,000-hertz, is too high for convenient time measurement, it is reduced by a process known as frequency division or demultiplication and applied to a synchronous motor connected to a clock dial through mechanical gearing. If a 100,000 hertz frequency, for example, is subjected to a combined electrical and mechanical gearing reduction of 6,000,000 to 1, then the second hand of the synchronous clock will make exactly one rotation in 60 seconds. The vibrations are so regular that the maximum error of an observatory quartz-crystal clock is only a few ten-thousandths of a second per day, equivalent to an error of one second every 10 years.
Besides the Chinese astronomical clock of Su Song in 1088 mentioned above, in Europe there were the clocks constructed by Richard of Wallingford in St Albans by 1336, and by Giovanni de Dondi in Padua from 1348 to 1364. They no longer exist, but detailed descriptions of their design and construction survive,[22][23] and modern reproductions have been made.[23] They illustrate how quickly the theory of the mechanical clock had been translated into practical constructions, and also that one of the many impulses to their development had been the desire of astronomers to investigate celestial phenomena.
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