Any expansion or contraction of the rod caused by changes of temperature will affect the timekeeping of a pendulum; e.g., a pendulum clock with a steel rod will lose one second a day for a rise in temperature of approximately 4 °F (2.2 °C). For accurate timekeeping, the length of the pendulum must be kept as nearly constant as possible. This may be done in several ways, some of which use the differing coefficients of expansion (the amount of expansion per degree change in temperature) of different metals to obtain a cancelling-out effect. In one popular compensation method, the bob consists of a glass or metal jar containing a suitable amount of mercury. The gridiron pendulum employs rods of different metal, usually brass and steel, while in the zinc-iron tube the pendulum rod is made of concentric tubes of zinc and iron. An improved method, however, is to make the pendulum rod from a special alloy called Invar. This material has such a small coefficient of expansion that small changes of temperature have a negligible effect and can easily be compensated for if required.
Until advances in the late twentieth century, navigation depended on the ability to measure latitude and longitude. Latitude can be determined through celestial navigation; the measurement of longitude requires accurate knowledge of time. This need was a major motivation for the development of accurate mechanical clocks. John Harrison created the first highly accurate marine chronometer in the mid-18th century. The Noon gun in Cape Town still fires an accurate signal to allow ships to check their chronometers. Many buildings near major ports used to have (some still do) a large ball mounted on a tower or mast arranged to drop at a pre-determined time, for the same purpose. While satellite navigation systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) require unprecedentedly accurate knowledge of time, this is supplied by equipment on the satellites; vehicles no longer need timekeeping equipment.
Alarm clocks are perfect for your nightstand or bedside table to make sure that you wake up on time. There are many different kinds of alarm clocks, ranging from digital clocks, analog clocks to projection clocks. Originally, clocks had difficulty with precision because they used a set of imprecise internal gears. Now, atomic alarm clocks are the perfect solution if you are looking for a clock that will get you to work on time. The best alarm clock depends on your needs and personal style. You should consider your purpose behind purchasing an alarm clock before making your selection.
By the time that phone hits the nightstand, you've lost precious sleep time, you've tricked your brain into thinking it's wake-up time instead of dream time, because the glow of the blue light emitted by your phone reduces your body's release of melatonin, the hormone that regulates your sleep cycle. Instead of relaxing, you've stimulated your mind. All of that adds up to poor quality sleep followed by a groggy, foggy, "I don't know why I'm so tired," kind of morning.
Taking cues from vintage timepieces, this classic round alarm clock ticks boxes for both fashion and function. Measuring just 7.7'' H x 5'' W x 2.3'' D overall, this petite piece is perfectly proportioned to sit on a nightstand, and it makes a subtle ticking sound to provide white noise as you snooze. A metallic finish on the frame offers a bit of sleek style, while twin bells up above help wake you up and keep you on time.
The Howard Miller Braxton 625-628 Wall Clock is finished in Black Coffee on select hardwoods and veneers. The white dial features black Arabic numerals and minute track. The polished silver-tone bezel matches the brushed silver finished pendulum bob. The wooden pendulum stick matches the color of the case. The single chime quartz movement plays the Westminster chime on the hour and gives an hour count. One Year Warranty and Free Shipping.
The primary purpose of a clock is to display the time. Clocks may also have the facility to make a loud alert signal at a specified time, typically to waken a sleeper at a preset time; they are referred to as alarm clocks. The alarm may start at a low volume and become louder, or have the facility to be switched off for a few minutes then resume. Alarm clocks with visible indicators are sometimes used to indicate to children too young to read the time that the time for sleep has finished; they are sometimes called training clocks.
Some clocks have several displays driven by a single mechanism, and some others have several completely separate mechanisms in a single case. Clocks in public places often have several faces visible from different directions, so that the clock can be read from anywhere in the vicinity; all the faces show the same time. Other clocks show the current time in several time-zones. Watches that are intended to be carried by travellers often have two displays, one for the local time and the other for the time at home, which is useful for making pre-arranged phone calls. Some equation clocks have two displays, one showing mean time and the other solar time, as would be shown by a sundial. Some clocks have both analog and digital displays. Clocks with Braille displays usually also have conventional digits so they can be read by sighted people.
Bolter, David J. Turing's Man: Western Culture in the Computer Age. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, N.C. (1984). ISBN 0-8078-4108-0 pbk. Very good, readable summary of the role of "the clock" in its setting the direction of philosophic movement for the "Western World". Cf. picture on p. 25 showing the verge and foliot. Bolton derived the picture from Macey, p. 20.

“This was a gift for my elderly, cognitively impaired mother. She was very often confused as to which day it was, the time of day, etc. She would show up at appointments on the wrong day, or think it was morning when it was evening. This clock is fantastic! It has made such a difference. Now she always knows what day and time it is. The clock is also very nice-looking. This was an excellent purchase and highly recommended. I can’t say enough good things about it.”

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