Water clocks, also known as clepsydrae (sg: clepsydra), along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments, with the only exceptions being the vertical gnomon and the day counting tally stick.[9] Given their great antiquity, where and when they first existed is not known and perhaps unknowable. The bowl-shaped outflow is the simplest form of a water clock and is known to have existed in Babylon and in Egypt around the 16th century BC. Other regions of the world, including India and China, also have early evidence of water clocks, but the earliest dates are less certain. Some authors, however, write about water clocks appearing as early as 4000 BC in these regions of the world.[10]
A water-powered cogwheel clock was created in China in AD 725 by Yi Xing and Liang Lingzan. This is not considered an escapement mechanism clock as it was unidirectional, the Song dynasty polymath and genius Su Song (1020–1101) incorporated it into his monumental innovation of the astronomical clock-tower of Kaifeng in 1088.[19][page needed] His astronomical clock and rotating armillary sphere still relied on the use of either flowing water during the spring, summer, autumn seasons and liquid mercury during the freezing temperature of winter (i.e. hydraulics). A mercury clock, described in the Libros del saber, a Spanish work from 1277 consisting of translations and paraphrases of Arabic works, is sometimes quoted as evidence for Muslim knowledge of a mechanical clock. A mercury-powered cogwheel clock was created by Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi[20][21]

A clock mechanism may be used to control a device according to time, e.g. a central heating system, a VCR, or a time bomb (see: digital counter). Such mechanisms are usually called timers. Clock mechanisms are also used to drive devices such as solar trackers and astronomical telescopes, which have to turn at accurately controlled speeds to counteract the rotation of the Earth.
Special features beyond simply keeping time can be either practical or decorative. Often found in the kitchen or other busy room, some digital clocks can show readings of the indoor or outdoor temperature, display the date, and have the capacity to set an alarm or timer. A swinging pendulum is most commonly found on fancier wood and metal clocks, though some novelty styles also feature a pendulum.
The naysayers might note that your cell phone alarm can already be set to vibrate, so why not just slip your smartphone under your pillowcase? All sanitary arguments aside, the SmartShaker 2 vibrates much more powerfully than a standard smartphone (three times more to be exact). The SmartShaker 2 also connects to your smartphone via Bluetooth and incorporates a functional, easy-to-use app that’s available for both Android and iOS devices. You can even set up to 10 different alarms and choose from an array of options, just in case you want an audio alarm as well as a vibration. After all, sometimes the snooze struggle is all too real.

“The alarm is loud with a lower frequency melody which I like since I have high-frequency hearing loss. Guaranteed to wake anyone up when the alarm goes off which is super important to me, especially if I’m using the alarm clock to wake up to catch a flight. … When the alarm goes off, press the large snooze bar on the top to have the alarm go off again in five minutes. Pressing the snooze bar on top at anytime also lights up the numbers and bars on the clock’s face, but the hands are a bit hard to see in the dark since the hands don’t light up. When the alarm on/off switch is turned to the off position, there’s a cute voice that says ‘Good Morning!’ which brings a smile to start the day. We love this clock so much, we plan to buy more to give as gifts. We’re sure the recipients will love it as much as we do.”
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